Rohingya men, women and children face severe discrimination and violence in Myanmar. The Rohingya are routinely denied access to justice, and impunity for serious human rights violations persists. Since the 1970s, several cycles of attacks prompted an exodus of Rohingya to Bangladesh, followed by premature repatriation and renewed persecution in Myanmar. The latest attacks have forced over 700,000 Rohingya into Bangladesh. Policies ensuring Rohingya’s safety and dignity have not been implemented, resulting in increased vulnerability and deadly violence. In order to develop appropriate solutions that effectively repatriate and protect refugees, the root causes of the crises must be understood. This report investigates institutional discrimination against the Rohingya, brutal violence perpetrated by security forces with impunity, particular vulnerabilities of refugee women and children, and risks associated with refugees’ premature return to Myanmar. Alternative, sustainable solutions must be implemented to ensure that the Rohingya can rebuild their lives with hope for a dignified future.